PDF | 35+ minutes read | On Jan 1, , Adrian C. Brock and others published History of Psychology [From "Encyclopedia of Critical. UNIT 1: THE DEFINITION AND HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY. QUESTION # What is the definition of psychology? Psychology is best defined as the "scientific . 1 Some other key figures in the history of Gestalt Psychology .. raw:: pdf. Page Break. Aristotle psychology studies the soul.
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INTRODUCING PSYCHOLOGY'S HISTORY psychologists within the APA into a History of Psychology Group, the eventual outcome being the. During its relatively short history as a distinct discipline, psychology was accompanied The notion that I regard authors who trace the history of psychology to. The definition of psychology has changed as the fo- cus of psychology has changed. At various times in history, psychology has been defined as the study of .
The most influential British student was Edward Bradford Titchener who later became professor at Cornell.
Another major German experimental psychologist of the era, though he did not direct his own research institute, was Hermann Ebbinghaus — Starting in the s, employing the case study technique, the Viennese physician Sigmund Freud developed and applied the methods of hypnosis, free association, and dream interpretation to reveal putatively unconscious beliefs and desires that he argued were the underlying causes of his patients' " hysteria.
Freudian psychoanalysis is particularly notable for the emphasis it places on the course of an individual's sexual development in pathogenesis. Psychoanalytic concepts have had a strong and lasting influence on Western culture, particularly on the arts. Hidden agendas, a bad conscience, or a sense of guilt, are examples of the existence of mental processes in which the individual is not conscious, through choice or lack of understanding, of some aspects of their personality and subsequent behavior.
Psychoanalysis examines mental processes which affect the ego. An understanding of these theoretically allows the individual greater choice and consciousness with a healing effect in neurosis and occasionally in psychosis, both of which Richard von Krafft-Ebing defined as "diseases of the personality". Carl G. Jung was an associate of Freud's who later broke with him over Freud's emphasis on sexuality. Feelings, which consist of value judgments, and motivate our reaction to what we have sensed.
Intellect, an analytic function that compares the sensed event to all known others and gives it a class and category, allowing us to understand a situation within a historical process, personal or public. And intuition, a mental function with access to deep behavioral patterns, being able to suggest unexpected solutions or predict unforeseen consequences, "as if seeing around corners" as Jung put it.
Jung insisted on an empirical psychology on which theories must be based on facts and not on the psychologist's projections or expectations. Early American[ edit ] Around the Harvard physiology instructor as he then was , William James , opened a small experimental psychology demonstration laboratory for use with his courses.
The laboratory was never used, at that time, for original research, and so controversy remains as to whether it is to be regarded as the "first" experimental psychology laboratory or not.
In , James gave a series of lectures at Johns Hopkins University entitled "The Senses and the Brain and their Relation to Thought" in which he argued, contra Thomas Henry Huxley , that consciousness is not epiphenomenal , but must have an evolutionary function, or it would not have been naturally selected in humans.
The same year James was contracted by Henry Holt to write a textbook on the "new" experimental psychology. If he had written it quickly, it would have been the first English-language textbook on the topic.
It was twelve years, however, before his two-volume The Principles of Psychology would be published. Although better known for his astronomical and philosophical work, Peirce also conducted what are perhaps the first American psychology experiments, on the subject of color vision, published in in the American Journal of Science see Cadwallader, In , Peirce was joined at Johns Hopkins by G.
Stanley Hall , who opened the first American research laboratory devoted to experimental psychology in Peirce was forced out of his position by scandal and Hall was awarded the only professorship in philosophy at Johns Hopkins. In Hall founded the American Journal of Psychology , which published work primarily emanating from his own laboratory. In Hall left his Johns Hopkins professorship for the presidency of the newly founded Clark University , where he remained for the rest of his career.
However, it was Princeton University 's Eno Hall, built in , that became the first university building in the United States to be devoted entirely to experimental psychology when it became the home of the university's Department of Psychology.
It laid many of the foundations for the sorts of questions that American psychologists would focus on for years to come.
The book's chapters on consciousness, emotion, and habit were particularly agenda-setting.
One of those who felt the impact of James' Principles was John Dewey , then professor of philosophy at the University of Michigan. With his junior colleagues, James Hayden Tufts who founded the psychology laboratory at Michigan and George Herbert Mead , and his student James Rowland Angell , this group began to reformulate psychology, focusing more strongly on the social environment and on the activity of mind and behavior than the psychophysics-inspired physiological psychology of Wundt and his followers had heretofore.
Tufts left Michigan for another junior position at the newly founded University of Chicago in A year later, the senior philosopher at Chicago, Charles Strong , resigned, and Tufts recommended to Chicago president William Rainey Harper that Dewey be offered the position.
After initial reluctance, Dewey was hired in Dewey soon filled out the department with his Michigan companions Mead and Angell. These four formed the core of the Chicago School of psychology. In , G. Stanley Hall invited some psychologists and philosophers to a meeting at Clark with the purpose of founding a new American Psychological Association APA.
Almost immediately tension arose between the experimentally and philosophically inclined members of the APA. Edward Bradford Titchener and Lightner Witmer launched an attempt to either establish a separate "Section" for philosophical presentations, or to eject the philosophers altogether.
After nearly a decade of debate, a Western Philosophical Association was founded and held its first meeting in at the University of Nebraska.
The following year , an American Philosophical Association held its first meeting at Columbia University. In , a number of psychologists, unhappy with the parochial editorial policies of the American Journal of Psychology approached Hall about appointing an editorial board and opening the journal out to more psychologists not within Hall's immediate circle. Hall refused, so James McKeen Cattell then of Columbia and James Mark Baldwin then of Princeton co-founded a new journal, Psychological Review , which rapidly grew to become a major outlet for American psychological researchers.
Moore Chicago published a series of experiments in Psychological Review appearing to show that Baldwin was the more correct of the two. However, they interpreted their findings in light of John Dewey 's new approach to psychology, which rejected the traditional stimulus-response understanding of the reflex arc in favor of a "circular" account in which what serves as "stimulus" and what as "response" depends on how one views the situation.
Titchener responded in Philosophical Review , by distinguishing his austere "structural" approach to psychology from what he termed the Chicago group's more applied "functional" approach, and thus began the first major theoretical rift in American psychology between Structuralism and Functionalism. Thorndike , and Robert S.
Woodworth , was often regarded as a second after Chicago "school" of American Functionalism see, e. Dewey was elected president of the APA in , while Titchener dropped his membership in the association. In , Titchener formed his own group, eventually known as the Society of Experimental Psychologists. Jastrow promoted the functionalist approach in his APA presidential address of , and Angell adopted Titchener's label explicitly in his influential textbook of and his APA presidential address of In reality, Structuralism was, more or less, confined to Titchener and his students.
Functionalism, broadly speaking, with its more practical emphasis on action and application, better suited the American cultural "style" and, perhaps more important, was more appealing to pragmatic university trustees and private funding agencies. These were traditional metaphysical schools, opposed to regarding psychology as a natural science. From the forward, a steadily increasing interest in positivist , materialist , evolutionary , and deterministic approaches to psychology developed, influenced by, among others, the work of Hyppolyte Taine — e.
In , Ribot founded Revue Philosophique the same year as Mind was founded in Britain , which for the next generation would be virtually the only French outlet for the "new" psychology Plas, Although not a working experimentalist himself, Ribot's many books were to have profound influence on the next generation of psychologists. In the s, Ribot's interests turned to psychopathology, writing books on disorders of memory , will , and personality , and where he attempted to bring to these topics the insights of general psychology.
Although in he lost a Sorbonne professorship in the History of Psychological Doctrines to traditionalist Jules Soury — , from to he taught experimental psychology at the Sorbonne. France's primary psychological strength lay in the field of psychopathology. Two of his students, Alfred Binet — and Pierre Janet — , adopted and expanded this practice in their own work.
In , Binet and his colleague Henri Beaunis — co-founded, at the Sorbonne , the first experimental psychology laboratory in France.
In the first years of the 20th century, Binet was requested by the French government to develop a method for the newly founded universal public education system to identify students who would require extra assistance to master the standardized curriculum.
Although the test was used to effect in France, it would find its greatest success and controversy in the United States, where it was translated into English by Henry H. Goddard — , the director of the Training School for the Feebleminded in Vineland, New Jersey, and his assistant, Elizabeth Kite a translation of the edition appeared in the Vineland Bulletin in , but much better known was Kite's translation of the edition, which appeared in book form. The translated test was used by Goddard to advance his eugenics agenda with respect to those he deemed congenitally feeble-minded, especially immigrants from non-Western European countries.
Binet's test was revised by Stanford professor Lewis M. Early physiological research on the brain and behavior had a dramatic impact on psychology, ultimately contributing to applying scientific methodologies to the study of human thought and behavior.
Psychology Emerges as a Separate Discipline During the mids, a German physiologist named Wilhelm Wundt was using scientific research methods to investigate reaction times. This event is generally considered the official start of psychology as a separate and distinct scientific discipline. How did Wundt view psychology? He perceived the subject as the study of human consciousness and sought to apply experimental methods to studying internal mental processes.
While his use of a process known as introspection is seen as unreliable and unscientific today, his early work in psychology helped set the stage for future experimental methods. While his influence dwindled as the field matured, his impact on psychology is unquestionable.
According to the structuralists , human consciousness could be broken down into smaller parts. Using a process known as introspection, trained subjects would attempt to break down their responses and reactions to the most basic sensation and perceptions.
While structuralism is notable for its emphasis on scientific research, its methods were unreliable, limiting, and subjective.
When Titchener died in , structuralism essentially died with him. William James emerged as one of the major American psychologists during this period and publishing his classic textbook, "The Principles of Psychology," established him as the father of American psychology.
His book soon became the standard text in psychology and his ideas eventually served as the basis for a new school of thought known as functionalism. The focus of functionalism was about how behavior actually works to help people live in their environment. Both of these early schools of thought emphasized human consciousness, but their conceptions of it were significantly different.
While the structuralists sought to break down mental processes into their smallest parts, the functionalists believed that consciousness existed as a more continuous and changing process. While functionalism quickly faded a separate school of thought, it would go on to influence later psychologists and theories of human thought and behavior.
The Emergence of Psychoanalysis Up to this point, early psychology stressed conscious human experience. According to Freud, psychological disorders are the result of these unconscious conflicts becoming extreme or unbalanced. While many of his ideas are viewed with skepticism today, his influence on psychology is undeniable. Instead, behaviorism strove to make psychology a more scientific discipline by focusing purely on observable behavior. Pavlov demonstrated that this learning process could be used to make an association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.
Behaviorism claims that consciousness is neither a definite nor a usable concept. The behaviorist, who has been trained always as an experimentalist, holds, further, that belief in the existence of consciousness goes back to the ancient days of superstition and magic.