Basic human anatomy pdf


    Surface anatomy-anatomy that we can see at the surface of the body (everyday life). • Regional anatomy-complete anatomy. (internal) of a specific region of the. referred to as the ' Father of modern human anatomy'. Different aspects . Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living matter. It is the smallest. This public document was automatically mirrored from lycgodoomcari.gaal filename: Basic Human URL.

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    Basic Human Anatomy Pdf

    INTRODUCTION TO BASIC HUMAN ANATOMY. LESSON 1 Lecture Notes. DEFINITIONS. Anatomy is the study of the structure of the body. Often, you may be. Human Anatomy. Based on the International Nomenclature. Heinz Feneis. Professor. Formerly Institute of Anatomy. University of Tübingen. Tübingen, Germany. Human Anatomy and Physiology. 6. Cell: The smallest independent units of life. All life depends on the many chemical activities of cells. Some of the basic.

    Usage subject to terms and conditions of license. Nevertheless, they are classified according to their functionally most important neurotransmitter as glutamatergic, cholinergic, catecholaminergic noradrenergic and dopaminergic , serotoninergic, and peptidergic neurons. The catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons can be identified by fluorescence microscopy because their transmitters show a green-yellow fluorescence following exposure to formalin vapor A, B. It is thus possible to trace the axon and to recognize the perikaryon and the outline of its nonfluorescent nucleus. The fluorescence is very faint in the axon, more distinct in the perikaryon, and most intense in the axon terminals. It is here that the highest concentration of transmitters occurs. Cholinergic neurons can be demonstrated by a histochemical assay for acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme required for the degradation of acetylcholine. Since this enzyme is also produced by noncholinergic neurons, the proper assay is by immunocytochemistry using antibodies against choline acetyltransferase, the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme. Other transmitters and neuropeptides can also be demonstrated by immunocytochemistry C.

    You will not be allowed to review biology or anatomy specimens or models unsupervised in the laboratory. Any laboratory review sessions held must be supervised by departmental faculty not student tutors.

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    You will not be allowed to review specimens or models unsupervised in laboratory storage or preparation areas, in the halls, or in classrooms. Please seal all preserved specimen containers completely to prevent excessive vapor inhalation and specimen dehydration. In order to prevent injury, report any spills of harmful materials such as acids, bases, or other chemical reagents so that they can be cleaned up promptly and safely. All student accidents, however minor, should be reported immediately to the instructor.

    Equipment and materials should be handled in a safe, responsible manner. Any special directions given by the instructor regarding chemicals or materials that may require extra precautions should be carefully followed. You should wash your hands before leaving the laboratory at break and before leaving at the end of lab. Before leaving the laboratory, materials and equipment used should be properly stored and all trash properly placed in trash cans.

    Define directional terms. Define body regional terms. Utilize these terms in sentences. Identify the body regional terms on a picture. List the body planes or sections. Identify the body planes or sections on a picture. Identify body cavities on a picture list the organs found in various body cavities. Explain the organization of the body s cavities. Define physiology. Describe the level of organization in the human body. Describe anatomical position.

    Why is it used? Directional Terms Notice how each term is paired with a term of opposite meaning. Superior means toward the head Inferior means away from the head Anterior or ventral means toward the face; toward the belly side. Posterior or dorsal means away from the face; toward the backside. Medial means toward the midline of the body. Lateral means away from the midline of the body. Distal means farther from the point of attachment of a limb. Proximal means closer to the point of attachment of a limb.

    Deep means toward the organs; away from the surface. Superficial means toward the surface of the body like the skin. My wrist is to my elbow. Fill in the blank with an appropriate directional term; in some cases there may be more than one correct answer. My shoulder is to my elbow.


    The navel is to the spine. The breast bone is to the shoulder socket. The skin is to the heart and lungs. The head is to the neck. The mouth is to the nose. The spine is to the breast bone.

    The lungs are to the ribcage. The fingers are to the wrist. The eyes are to the nose. The ears are to the mouth. The ankle is to the knee. The waist is to the neck.

    The heart is to the ribcage. The fingertips are to the elbow. The nose is to the chin. The knee is to the ankle. The mouth is to the back of the head.

    The eyes are to the ears. The elbow is to the wrist. The ear is on the surface of the head in anatomical position. The buttocks are on the body surface in anatomical position. The skin is to the muscles. The umbilicus navel is on the body surface in anatomical position. The brain is to the skull. The palm of the hand is on the body surface in anatomical position. The elbow is on the body surface in anatomical position.

    The soles of the feet are on the body surface in anatomical position. The shoulder is to the spine. Use these pictures as practice. Divides the body into left and right portions.. Divides the body into equal left and right halves..

    Divides the body into superior and inferior portions. Divides the body into anterior and posterior portions. In some cases there may be more than one correct answer. To scan an image of the brain from the anterior to the posterior side, you would follow along a plane. To make an incision that transversely divides one vertebra from the next, you must be making a division between and portions. Ron has diabetes and had his left leg amputated below the knee.

    The surgeons made a section to remove the inferior portion of his leg. To cut your nose off in spite of your face is an expression that means the nose would be removed along the plane.

    Basic Human Anatomy: Table of contents

    Van Gogh was an artist who removed his ear; he must have made a section to remove it from the rest of his head.

    The diaphragm rests beneath the lungs, making a plane between thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities on the ventral side of the body. Identify the plane or section each dotted line creates on each figure, below. A B C Answers 1. Ventral Body Cavity is found on the anterior side of the body. It contains two cavities: a.

    Thoracic Cavity: contains the organs and is formed by the ribcage. The, your breathing muscle, separates the thoracic from the abdominopelvic cavities. The middle area of the thoracic cavity where the heart is housed, esophagus and trachea are found is called the.

    The lungs are housed in cavities while the heart is housed in a pericardial cavity; the pleural cavities are separated by the mediastinum.

    Abdominopelvic Cavity: houses many organs. There aren t any bones protecting this area except for the little protection from the pelvic bones. The cavity contains the gastrointestinal GI systems while the cavity contains the bladder, reproductive organs and some GI organs.

    Use the torso models to locate the organs in this cavity. The abdominopelvic cavity has 4 quadrants: The abdominopelvic cavity has 9 regions: Quadrants Regions Dorsal Body Cavity is found on the posterior side of the body.

    It contains 2 cavities: a.

    Cranial Cavity: which houses the. The skull forms the protection around this organ. Spinal or Vertebral Cavity: which houses the. The vertebrae protect this organ. The umbilical cavity is to the epigastric region.

    The left hypochondriac region is to the epigastric region. The hypogastric region is to the epigastric region. The right iliac region is to the right hypochondriac region.

    The thoracic cavity contains these organs: 6. The diaphragm separates the cavity from the cavity. The liver, stomach, pancreas, and intestines are in the cavity of the body cavity.

    Table of Contents

    The cranial and spinal cavities are part of the body cavity. The thoracic cavity is to the abdominopelvic cavity. The spinal cavity is on the side of the body. The ventral body cavity contains two subdivisions: the cavity which contains the heart and lungs and the cavity which contains the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs.

    The dorsal body cavity has two subdivisions: the cavity which houses the brain and the cavity which contains the spinal cord. The diaphragm is to the thoracic cavity while it sits to the abdominopelvic cavity.

    The right upper quadrant is to the right lower quadrant. The left lower quadrant is to the left upper quadrant. Answers 1. To maintain proper homeostasis we need: nutrients oxygen water body temperature of The release of a product inhibits any further production to reach homeostasis.

    In other words, the role of the effector in negative feedback is to cancel the original stimulus shut off the system. The effects trigger more change until homeostasis is reached. The main difference between the two types of receptors is in the speed of the synaptic response. In the case of ligand-gated ion channels, the activation causes a rapid synaptic potential lasting only for milliseconds. Activation of G protein-coupled receptors results in responses that last seconds or minutes.

    G proteins regulate enzymes that produce intracellular messenger substances. These have an effect on ion channels or, via regulatory proteins, on the expression of genes. Basic Elements Ligand-gated Ion Channels Ligand-gated ion channels consist of different subunits A1 that are inserted into the cell membrane A2.

    Binding of the neurotransmitter to the specific receptor causes the channel to become permeable to certain ions B. Excitatory amino acid receptors.

    Receptors for the excitatory transmitter glutamate are classified according to the synthetic ligands binding to them. Binding to the AMPA receptor causes an influx of sodium ions, thus leading to depolarization of the cell. Under conditions of resting potential, the NMDA receptor is blocked by magnesium; the magnesium blockade is lifted by depolarization through AMPA receptors. This temporal shift in activities of the AMPA and NMDA receptors results in a graduated response of the postsynaptic neurons to the neurotransmitter glutamate.

    Inhibitory GABA and glycine receptors. GABA is the most common inhibitory transmitter in the brain, and glycine in the spinal cord. Anatomy and cell biology 43 4: Inner body.

    Retrieved from http: What is anatomy? What is histotechnology? MLA Nordqvist, Christian. A brief introduction. MediLexicon, Intl. APA Nordqvist, C. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.

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    Scroll to Accept. Get the MNT newsletter. Enter your email address to subscribe to our most top categories Your privacy is important to us. Table of contents Gross anatomy Microscopic anatomy Histopathology Studying anatomy. Knowing about anatomy is key to understanding healthcare. On a microscopic level, anatomy looks at cell structure and function. Related coverage. Additional information. This content requires JavaScript to be enabled. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report: Please note: If no author information is provided, the source is cited instead.

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